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Interior of soldiers' barracks at St. Andrews by-the-Sea, New Brunswick, 1854

Type: Image

Painted by a British officer of the 76th Regiment of Foot, this watercolour of the 1850s confirms that open fireplaces still heated some barracks, despite wood stoves being introduced in the 1840s. The man at centre wears a grey military greatcoat, while others wear the red regimental coat. At right can be seen several soldier's beds, each with storage above for a knapsack, clothing and accoutrements. (Library and Archives Canada, C-008404)

Site: National Defence

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada: The War of 1812

Type: Document

It is June of 1812, and war has been declared between the United States and Great Britain! Tension has been simmering between these two nations for many years and for many reasons.

Site: Parks Canada

An Infantryman’s Training in Canada

Type: Document

Initial training for Canadian soldiers in Canada had little relation to the conditions they would see while serving in Europe. The training itself led to an amateurish attitude by officers to their military skills and a poor preparation for European battlegrounds.

Site: National Defence

Brothers in Arms

Type: Document

Alexander Smith Jr. earned his Military Cross in France in September 1916 during the second Allied assault on the Somme. When the war ended, he was also named an Officer of the Order of the Black Star, a Polish order, one of only five Canadians to receive this honour. His younger brother, Charles Denton Smith earned his Military Cross in Mons Belgium and received it in France on November 9, 1918 - two days before the war ended.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada: Military Services

Type: Document

After the war ended in 1814, St. Andrews Blockhouse continued to be used as a barracks by the Royal Artillery.

Site: Parks Canada

Canadian Illustrated News - Camp at Prah-Su (Permanent Garrison Camp) - The Ashantee War

Type: Image

Drawing depicting people in Africa during the war of 1873-1874.

Site: Library and Archives Canada

The Hughes Method and Camp Valcartier

Type: Document

The Minister of Militia and Defence, Sir Sam Hughes, created the Valcartier training camp in 1912 which served as the primary Canadian Army training base in 1914. Typical Canadian patronage methods were used to expand and operate the camp.

Site: National Defence

Canadian infantry barracks room, circa 1890

Type: Image

A rare glimpse into life as it was in a Canadian infantry barracks room during a winter evening in about 1890. Some men are shown cleaning their kit, the floor or a Snider-Enfield infantry rifle, one is being shaved, another trims his moustache and one is reading. The barracks furniture features the British iron folding bed and barrack table with iron legs. The men’s uniforms and equipment are neatly hung or shelved and a stove, essential in a Canadian winter, is prominent. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

German Concrete Shelter, Liévin, by war artist Alexander Young Jackson

Type: Image

An electronic reproduction of the oil on canvas artwork, "German Concrete Shelter, Liévin," created by A.Y. Jackson in 1918.

Site: Canadian War Museum

Housing

Type: Document

British army barracks during the 18th and 19th centuries were laid out like crowded dormitories. Each room housed a company (50-100 men) plus any wives. Beds or bunks ran along the sides, with tables and benches down the centre. In Canada, a cast-iron stove heated the room.

Site: National Defence