History Browser

Search Results

Interpreter, Indian Department, 1812-1815

Type: Image

Officers and interpreters of the British Indian Department in Canada were often found in action with warriors during the War of 1812, the most famous instance being possibly at Beaver Dams in June 1813. At that time, the department’s uniform scarlet was faced with green. Interpreters, not being commisioned officers, did not have epaulettes. Reconstruction by Ron Volstad. (Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

James Fitzgibbon's 1820 testimonial regarding Laura Secord

Type: Document

In June 1813, James FitzGibbon (1780-1863) was a lieutenant of the 49th (the Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot in command of the British outpost at Beaver Dams. He received warning from Laura Secord (1775-1868) of an impending American surprise attack, and his instructions led to their ambush and surrender. FitzGibbon had a remarkable military career, which reached its high point when he was largely responsible for preventing Mackenzie's rebels from taking Toronto in 1837. This testimonial was reproduced in ‘From Brock to Currie’ (Toronto, 1935).

Site: National Defence

Campaign of 1814 Battles in the Niagara Region

Type: Document

This is the main page for all charts for the 1814 campaign of the War of 1812, indicating command structure and battles . The first chart is linked to the same page and appears under coloured battle maps for 1814.

Site: Parks Canada

Private, 1st Regiment of Foot (Royal Scots), 1813-1816

Type: Image

The first battalion of the 1st Regiment of Foot (Royal Scots) served in Canada between 1812 and 1815. This man, marked as one of the regiment's centre companies by his white over red shako tuft, wears the 1812 pattern of uniform that would have been seen in Canada after 1813. This is the uniform that the Royal Scots wore at the battle of Chippawa in July 1814. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Map of the battle of Châteauguay, 26 October 1813

Type: Image

The battle of Châteauguay took place along the east and west banks of the Châteauguay river. There was a narrow cleared area on the west bank (towards the top of this map published in 1815), and it was here that the Canadian defenders manned their abbatis (barricades made of felled trees) on 26 October 1813. Most of the fighting took place on the west bank, but an American attempt to outflank the abbatis led to fierce and confused fighting on the east bank as well. The broken terrain helped the defenders by keeping the invaders from realizing that they outnumbered the Canadians ten to one.

Site: National Defence

Laura Secord discovered by British Amerindian allies, 22 June 1813

Type: Image

Laura Secord (1775-1868) walked into a camp of Amerindians towards the end of her famous 30 kilometre trek on 22 June 1813. The group were allies of the British, and they led Secord to a detachment of British troops stationed at the DeCew house, on the Niagara Escarpment near present-day St. Catherines, Ontario. There, she was able to pass on her warning of an impending American attack. This print gives a rather romanticized view of the heroine. At the time of her exploit, Secord was 38, rather older than suggested here. Nevertheless, a contemporary eyewitness account describes her 'slender frame and delicate appearance'.

Site: National Defence

The Battle of Crysler's Farm

Type: Document

In November of 1813, the American main column advanced eastward down the St. Lawrence River towards Montreal. In a farmer's field near present-day Morrisburg, Ontario, the were met and beaten in a European-style battle by British regulars. The invasions of 1813 were over.

Site: National Defence

National Historic Site - Battle of Queenston Heights

Type: Document

The Battle of Queenston Heights took place in October of 1812, in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, when an American invasion force was defeated.

Site: Parks Canada

Canadian Voltigeurs on the march in 1813

Type: Image

The companies of the Provincial Corps of Light Infantry (better known as the 'Canadian Voltigeurs') would have looked like this in October of 1813 as they marched south from Montreal to take up defensive positions at Châteauguay. Some of the men wear their greatcoats, while others have only their grey uniform coats. At left is an Amerindian scout - possibly a Mohawk from Kanesatake or Kahnawake near Montreal. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Fort George, Upper Canada

Type: Image

In 1794, Jay’s Treaty led to withdrawal of British forces from Fort Niagara. In 1796, work began on Fort George at Newark (present-day Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario), directly across the Niagara River from the older fort. Fort George was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812. It is now a major National Historic Site. The wooden palisade at the centre of this photograph sits on top of the earth-built curtain wall linking two of the fort's six stone bastions, one of which can be seen at the end of the palisade. To the left is a part of the ditch (or 'covered way') surrounding the fort, along with an further earthwork known as a ravelin. The ravelin, with its own wooden palisade and small blockhouse inside, made it more difficult for any attacker to assault the curtain wall.

Site: National Defence