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The City Falls

Type: Document

Encouraged by weak British resistance, the American rebels were able to capture Fort Saint-Jean south of Montreal in November 1775. This left the city without defence, and Governor Carleton fled. The rebels took Montreal, and began trying to raise Canadian troops to fight for them.

Site: National Defence

British at Fort Chambly

Type: Document

After the Conquest in 1760, the British moved into Fort Chambly. This website describes the role of the fort during the invasion of Canada by the Americans in 1775-1776 and again in the War of 1812.

Site: Parks Canada

The Americans Repulsed

Type: Document

During the battle of New Year's Eve of 1775, a column of American rebels led by General Arnold made one last attack on Quebec City. Arnold was wounded and many of his men captured when British governor Carleton attacked the rebels from behind.

Site: National Defence

Private, The Royal Highland Emigrants, 1775-1776

Type: Image

The Royal Highland Emigrants, the artificers and the sailors defending Quebec City in 1775-1776 all had, according to Lt. William Lindsay of the Quebec ‘British’ Militia: ‘buff vests and breeches, and the Royal [Highland] Emigrants, Seamen, and Artificers in green, with scarlet facings, cape [collar] and cuffs’. The Highlanders received their government tartan kilts, red coatees faced with blue and bonnets in 1777. In 1779, the regiment was made part of the British regular army as the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants). By 1782, the kilts had obviously worn out as they had been turned into ‘Plad [sic] trousers’ and ‘tartan trousers’. So, in effect, trews had been made out of the kilts. New kilts were not issued as, by May 1784, ‘Breeches in lieu of half plaid’ were being issued to the men shortly before the battalion was disbanded in June. Reconstruction by Charles Stadden. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Private, Royal Fencible Americans, Fort Cumberland, 1775-1776

Type: Image

During the siege of Fort Cumberland (formerly the French Fort Beauséjour) during the winter of 1775-1776, the soldiers of this newly raised unit had no uniforms; old blankets and even barrack rugs were pressed into service. Reconstruction by Derek Fitzjames. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Carleton's Indecision

Type: Document

In 1775, support from the francophone Canadian population for the British dropped because of Governor Carleton's lack of decisive action against the American rebels. Most Canadians opted for neutrality, choosing to let the British and Americans fight among themselves

Site: National Defence

Fort Lennox National Historic Site of Canada: American Invasion

Type: Document

Stimulated by their desire for independence, revolutionaries in the thirteen American colonies declared war on Great Britain in 1775. A few months later, they occupied Île aux Noix. General Schuyler used it as a base for the attack on Montreal. After the Americans withdrew, the British considered the island to be a major frontier post and decided to fortify it. The border with the newly founded United States remained a source of conflict.

Site: Parks Canada

Canada and the American Revolution - Introduction to Washington Eyes Quebec - A Question of Loyalties

Type: Document

On April 19, 1775, the shot heard around the world was fired at Lexington, Massachusetts, plunging Britain and the Thirteen colonies into war. Now, whether they liked it or not, Canadians would be drawn into America's Revolution. American rebel commander George Washington was determined to seize Quebec before Britain could use it as a springboard to invade the Thirteen Colonies. From the television series "Canada: A People's History." Includes links to educational resources, bibliography, games, puzzles, and video clips.

Site: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Seige Continues

Type: Document

Despite a failed attack New Year's Eve, 1775, the American rebel army continued to surround Quebec City. They were outgunned by the British and Canadian defenders, and also suffered from a smallpox epidemic. Attempts to recruit Canadians to support the rebels also went poorly.

Site: National Defence

American rebel soldier during the siege of Quebec, 1775-1776

Type: Image

The rebel forces laying siege to Quebec in the winter of 1775-1776 suffered greatly from the harsh climate. They were forced to improvise winter clothing and shelter. Reconstruction by Gerald A. Embleton. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence