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Subject > Armed Forces > Military Ceremony and Honours

Date > 1700

Weapons

Type: Document

This section illustrates a selection of firearms and bladed weapons used by British and Canadian military units during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Site: National Defence

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence

To the Sound of the Drummer's Beat

Type: Document

Fortified towns like Quebec, Montreal, Trois-Rivières and Louisbourg were all governed by military staffs. The lives of French soldiers and Canadian civilians alike were regulated by the different drum beatings of the garrison, from La Diane at dawn to La Retraite at sunset.

Site: National Defence

General Montcalm Takes Oswego

Type: Document

In May of 1755, further reinforcements drawn from the French metropolitan army arrived in Canada. They were led by the mercurial Marquis de Montcalm, whose first action in the colony was to lead a successful European-style siege of the British forts defending Oswego.

Site: National Defence

Soldier with regimental colour, régiment de Guyenne, circa 1755-1760

Type: Image

This regimental colour (or 'drapeau d'ordonnance') was carried by the 2nd battalion of the régiment de Guyenne when it was sent to New France in 1755. Note the white cravat tied around the standard pole. This and the white cross were common to all French army colours of the period. The pattern of isabelle (a brownish-yellow) and vert-gris (green-grey) on the colour was the mark of the régiment de Guyenne. This contemporary print shows the regiment's European-pattern uniform, worn in New France by the 2nd battalion from 1757 to 1760. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

The British Lay Siege to Louisbourg

Type: Document

In June 1758, a British fleet and army arrived off Île Royale, and the siege of Louisbourg began. It lasted five weeks, thanks to strong fortifications and the determination of the outnumbered defenders. French surrender was followed by deportation of the civilian population.

Site: National Defence

La Vérendrye's Sons Continue the Search

Type: Document

Louis-Joseph and François La Vérendrye ventured even farther than their father, reaching as far south as Nebraska and as far west as Wyoming. They were the first Europeans to record seeing the Rocky Mountains in 1743.

Site: National Defence

The Nature of the Militia

Type: Document

Participation of the general populace of New France in the militia provided an important link between a hierarchical absolutist government and a population known for being proud and independent. Although membership was non voluntary, this was not resented by the men involved.

Site: National Defence

Militiamen raising the May pole in front of their captain’s house

Type: Image

The tradition of raising the May pole in front of the Militia captain's house, which began in the era of New France, went on in French Canada until the middle of the 19th century.

Site: National Defence

Louis XV, King of France from 1715 to 1774

Type: Image

King Louis XV of France (1710–1774) is shown wearing the royal robes. Around his neck are the collars and insignia of two orders of chivalry - the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, and the French Order of Saint-Louis. The white 8-pointed cross of the latter order was awarded to many Canadain soldiers during the French regime in Canada. (Library and Archives Canada, C-000604)

Site: National Defence