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Attempts to Increase Military Strength

Type: Document

Despite their disunity, the staff of New France agreed on one thing - the need for more fighting men to defend the colony. During the winter of 1756-57, Governor Vaudreuil reorganized existing resources, and two more battalions from the French metropolitan army were dispatched.

Site: National Defence

Compagnies franches de la Marine (Warships)

Type: Document

The names of troops raised by the French Ministry of Marine often confuse people. There were separate units of Compagnies franches de la Marine to serve aboard warships. These troops had nothing to do with the Compagnies franches found in Canada.

Site: National Defence

Concluding Phase of Operations by the 1st Cdn Army - Part I - The Operations of First Cdn Army, 2-11 Apr 45

Type: Document

This official report deals with the operations of the First Canadian Army in North-West Europe during the last phase of the campaign from April 2, 1945, when General H.D.G. Crerar's headquarters assumed control of Canadian operations east of the Rhine, to the signing of the instrument of surrender by plenipotentiaries of the German High Command at Field Marshal Montgomery's Tactical Headquarters on May 4, resulting in the cease fire order.

Site: National Defence

Quebec Surrenders

Type: Document

In 1759, both the British and French generals were fatally wounded during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe died on the field, and Montcalm the next day. Before dying, Montcalm ordered the French army to surrender the city and retreat to Montreal.

Site: National Defence

A New Mission

Type: Document

A new Liberal government in 1963 chose a new mission for the reserves – survival training and territorial defence, with a reduced size. Following this decision, the size of the reserves fluctuated, as the relevance of the militia and their role became less apparent.

Site: National Defence

The Navy's Troops Outside North America

Type: Document

The French Ministry of the Navy was responsible for warships, coastal defence and management of the colonies. As a result, it maintained troops in France and the West Indies as well as in North America.

Site: National Defence

Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers

Type: Document

Both General Montcalm and Governor Vaudreuil wrote to their respective superiors in the fall of 1756, complaining of the other's behaviour. The officers of New France had split into two hostile camps: Canadian-born (led by the Governor) and French-born (led by Montcalm).

Site: National Defence

The British Garrison

Type: Document

In 1755, the British colonies were more lightly garrisoned than their French counterparts. The largest concentration was in Nova Scotia, where 1,500 regular soldiers were stationed. The other colonies had to make due with scattered Independent Companies to support their militia.

Site: National Defence

Situation of the Canadian Military Forces Overseas, Autumn, 1943 - III - Recent Changes in Commands and Staffs

Type: Document

The period between September 3, 1943 and December 31, 1943 witnessed many important changes in command and staff of the Canadian Army Overseas, including the retirement of Lt.-Gen. McNaughton from the command of First Canadian Army. This report deals with those changes.

Site: National Defence

Harsh Terms of Surrender

Type: Document

Since the fortifications of Montreal were too weak to withstand a siege by the British in September 1760, French commanders Vaudreuil and Lévis were forced to surrender. The terms were harsh, with the defenders being refused the honours of war.

Site: National Defence