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Introduction to the Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Type: Document

The Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which saw German U-boats penetrate the Cabot Strait and the Strait of Belle Isle to sink 23 ships between 1942 and 1944, marked the only time since the War of 1812 that enemy warships inflicted death within Canada's inland waters. The battle advanced to within 300 kilometres of Québec City. A war that pervaded people's lives but was still somehow remote, had become immediate, threatening, and very real. This site outlines the story of this battle.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Commemoration - Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Type: Document

Many of those whose lives were claimed by the Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence have no known grave. Their lives, and their sacrifices, are commemorated on Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials on both sides of the Atlantic. This website gives account of these memorials and awards.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (1942-1944)

Type: Document

Table of contents with links to various topics concerning the Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Second World War.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Last Major Encounters - Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Type: Document

In 1944 German U-boats returned to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which had been re-opened to trans-Atlantic vessels, intent on repeating their successes of 1942. By this time the Royal Canadian Navy was more adept at anti-submarine warfare, and its convoy procedures were much improved. Maritime air patrols were more proficient too. The U-boats returned with a potentially deadly advantage, however: the newly invented schnorkel mast.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Merchant Navy War Dead Database

Type: Document

This database is an index that can be used to search for the names of Canadian Merchant sailors who were killed while serving in Canada's Merchant Marine. It can also be used to search for the names of Canadian Merchant Navy vessels. You can enter the name of the Canadian Merchant Navy war dead, the vessel they served on, or both.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Heaviest Blow of All - Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Type: Document

During the Battle of the St. Lawrence, the last loss of the 1942 season was the largest, and perhaps the most tragic. It was the Sydney to Port aux Basques ferry Caribou, which was sunk by a German U-boat in Cabot Strait during the early morning hours of October 14, 1942. More than any other event, the loss of the Caribou revealed to all Canadians our vulnerability to seaward attack and brought home the fact that the war wasn't just a European show.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

The War at Sea - Canada and the First World War

Type: Document

When the war began in 1914 Canada had an embryonic naval service consisting of less than 350 men and two ships. However, the Royal Canadian Navy soon assumed an important defensive role as anti-submarine, intelligence gathering, communication, mine sweeping and patrolling capabilities were added to it. These enhancements would form the nucleus of a future, effective naval force.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

War Intensifies - 1941 - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

As the spring of 1941 approached, Germany stepped up the scale of attack. To counteract this mounting menace from German submarines, new types of vessels were constructed and scientists worked desperately to design new methods of locating and destroying the submarine. Canada's fleet was augmented by several new types of vessels of which the corvette was the most famous. These small ships were invaluable in the anti-U-boat war.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Cost of War - Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

The Battle of the Atlantic was a decisive struggle that was won, just in time, with massive help from Canada--from its navy, from its airmen, from its merchant marine and from its civilian population. This document presents the cost of this victory in terms of human lives lost and describes the sacrifice of RCAF Flight-Lieutenant David Hornell, who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada

Facts about the Battle of the Atlantic

Type: Document

Quick facts about the duration of the Battle of the Atlantic, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), the Merchant Marine, and U-boats (Unterseebooten).

Site: Veterans Affairs Canada