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Date > 1000

Subject > Soldiers, Warriors and Leaders

Reconstructed earth and timber house at l’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland

Type: Image

This house was reconstructed in the style of those built by the Vikings at l’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland around the year 1000. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

The bay at l’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland

Type: Image

L’Anse aux Meadows was the site of a Viking settlement at around the year 1,000. The area is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. (Parks Canada)

Site: National Defence

Norman (or Viking) axeman, 10th century

Type: Image

This Norman (or Viking) axe man holds a Danish style battle axe. Vikings were also called ‘Norman’ — men of the north — by the Dark Ages French. A large group of Vikings occupied and settled on the north-western coast of France in what became Normandy. This is the region from which many of the French settlers to New France came in the 17th century. It is also where the Canadian Army landed on D-Day on 6 June 1944. Print after Viollet-Leduc from the Bayeux tapestry.

Site: National Defence

L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada:The Viking Encampment Vinland 1000 AD.

Type: Document

In the early years of the 11th century, the first Europeans to set foot in North America arrived on the shores of modern day L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland. These Scandinavians, collectively known as the Norse, had travelled west from their colonies in Iceland and Greenland. They had not come to raid, but to cut timber, hunt and explore the unknown wilderness they called Vinland.

Site: Parks Canada

Viking ships, circa 1000

Type: Image

The sleek design of these ships made them the fastest, most seaworthy craft of their time. (Library of the Canadian Department of National Defence)

Site: National Defence

The Skraelings' Way of War

Type: Document

Based on Viking accounts, the Skraelings were courageous and effective warriors. Their tactics have a lot in common with other Amerindian cultures.

Site: National Defence

War and the Foundation of Canada - Collision of Cultures

Type: Document

As early as 1000 CE, encounters between Europeans and First Peoples often led to violence.

Site: Canadian War Museum

A view of a Viking settlement in America

Type: Image

This view was conceived during the 1930s by historical artist Fergus Kyle (1876-1941). Although we now know that Viking helmets did not have horns, as shown here and in countless other images in popular art, most of the other details shown give a relatively realistic impression of what such a settlement might look like. The Vikings also could build timber houses as well as ones made of earth.

Site: National Defence

A Commemorative History of Aboriginal People in the Canadian Military

Type: Document

This history on our Aboriginal Peoples and their contribution to Canada’s rich military heritage is the latest in a series of books prepared by the Director of History and Heritage commemorating especial military experience. Authors : P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Ph.D., R. Scott Sheffield, Ph.D., John Moses, Maxime Gohier

Site: National Defence

Norman (or Viking) helmet, 10th century

Type: Image

Norman (or Viking) helmets typically had a nose guard such as the one seen here. Contrary to popular belief, Viking helmets had no horns. Print after Viollet-Leduc.

Site: National Defence